As the United States transitions to clean energy, advances in technology are making such a transition possible by enabling utility-scale renewable energy generation (primarily wind and solar) and transportation electrification. However, the growth in renewable energy generation and electric vehicles (EVs) has created new reliability issues for the electric grid due to the intermittent nature of solar and wind power and increased load on the grid from EV charging. New methods and tools are needed to balance energy supply and demand. One such tool is the vehicle-to-grid (V2G) system, which uses EV batteries to help balance the grid, providing additional value beyond transportation and contributing to the clean energy transition.

This article advocates for the use of V2G at scale and surveys the policy, technology, and regulatory issues involved in making it successful. Part I argues that V2G should be used as part of the clean energy transition to address renewable generation reliability issues, reduce the grid strain caused by increased EV charging, and expand storage resources for the electric grid. Part II explains how several technology and infrastructure barriers to V2G viability have been reduced or eliminated and discusses issues that still require resolution. Part III makes policy and regulatory recommendations for integrating V2G into grids operating in vertically integrated, monopoly markets or in restructured markets and for resolving two issues central to V2G grid integration: ownership and compensation.