Document Type



In this article, Professor Robert S. Chang discusses the Los Angeles Police Department's Rampart scandal. Professor Chang compares Los Angeles to a single-celled organism that lives according to three basic survival rules. These three rules are: 1) keep out that which is undesirable, 2) isolate and control that which cannot be kept out, and 3) expel, whenever possible, undesirable elements. The author first discusses some of the historical antecedents to the Rampart scandal in Los Angeles. The author then discusses how the United States as a whole has historically acted according to the three basic survival rules exhibited by a single-celled organism. Finally, the author addresses how these historical events in the United States and in Los Angeles set the stage for the Los Angeles Police Department Rampart scandal.